In the family of starchy foods, I ask for bread. Many people can’t imagine their meal without it: it satisfies the biggest appetites. White, bis, with cereals or wholemeal… you still have to find your way around the varieties on offer and know how to take advantage of their complementarity. The Ministry of Health recalls in the first place that if there are no specific recommendations on the quantity of bread to consume per meal, ” this quantity must above all be modulated according to that of other starchy foods and cereal products (rusks, ready-to-eat cereals) consumed during the day. In his “food guide for all”, the latter however recommends favoring wholemeal or rye bread, sourdough or even cereals, rather than white bread (the famous baguette) or Viennese. Their composition is actually quite similar: water, flour, salt and yeast, or sourdough.
Concretely, the choice will be made at the level of the type of flour used and the choice between yeast and sourdough, for two elements that will make all the difference from a nutritional point of view: the glycemic index (GI) and fibers. As the France Assos Santé association explains, “ the glycemic index is measured on a scale of 0 to 100. The higher it is, the more the carbohydrates contained in the food that you have eaten pass into the blood. Thus, the GI is a calculation based on the curve of the blood carbohydrate level tested following the ingestion of this or that food: it is a classification criterion for foods containing carbohydrates, based on their effects on blood sugar during the 2 hours following ingestion. This is always given as a fixed figure, whereas in reality it varies according to several factors, such as maturity (the riper a fruit, the higher its GI), cooking (the more the food is cooked, the more GI is high) or the food context (whether the food is eaten alone or in a meal with other foods).
Why is it better to choose a bread rich in fiber?
Fiber on the other hand is not a specific component, but a complex group of several components found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes. In simple terms, fiber can be defined as carbohydrates that cannot be fully digested in our gut. Their fate is located lower, in the colon, where they contribute to the regulation of intestinal transit and therefore of appetite, but also have other very important effects for health. In particular, they help nourish our intestinal microbiota, fight against excess cholesterol and are above all essential for regulating blood sugar. There are two kinds of fiber: insoluble fiber present in cereal products, especially wholemeal, and soluble fiber present mainly in fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereals. To take advantage of their benefits, the national health nutrition program recommends consuming 30 grams per day.
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And this in particular through the consumption of bread whose nutritional value results, in part, from the flour used in its composition, since the fiber content depends on the type of flour. In a dedicated information point, the UFC Que Choisir points out that the classification of flours depends on the extraction rate of the wheat, and therefore on the quantity of mineral matter remaining in the flour. White, semi-complete, complete, integral flour… the more the grain envelope is preserved, the less the flour (indicated with the letter T followed by a number) is refined. ” In T150 flour, the grain is left whole with its envelopes and its germ. It is the basis of wholemeal bread. In contrast, baguette and common “white” breads are made from T55 or T65 flour. Between these two extremes, there are “chicken” flours of the T110 and T80 type which constitute a compromise between wholemeal flours, whose fiber content does not facilitate dispersion in the intestinal bolus, and overly refined white flours. notes the organization.
What about sourdough bread?
As you will have understood, common white bread and traditional baguette, made from refined flours, contain little fiber unlike wholemeal or wholemeal bread, while brown or semi-wholemeal bread is ideal for those who do not digest good for very dense breads. Beyond the degree of refining of the flour, a final element remains to be taken into account in the final choice, as the famous Yuka application clearly underlines: bread with yeast or sourdough? “ Unlike baker’s yeast, which is actually a microscopic fungus (not to be confused with the baking powder used to leaven cakes), sourdough comes only from substances naturally present in the composition of bread. Indeed, sourdough results from the fermentation caused by the bacteria present on the envelope of the grain of wheat. It will produce lactic fermentation, which is much slower than alcoholic fermentation, which explains its lower use by bakeries. she says.
However, its advantages are numerous, starting with the fact that sourdough bread is more digestible thanks to the lactic bacteria formed during natural fermentation. That is why “ it is particularly advisable to choose sourdough bread for wholemeal breads which can be more difficult to digest. “, we recommend. Same observation of the UFC-Que Choisir which attests that “the sourdough gives more typical products, with a small point of acidity. It promotes digestive tolerance of gluten and improves the assimilation of mineral compounds in bread. Moreover, who says more digestible often says with a more appropriate glycemic index. Application experts point out that “ the glycemic index of sourdough bread is lower than that of yeast bread, around 65 against more than 80 for yeast bread. Sourdough bread will therefore allow a slower diffusion of carbohydrates, and therefore limit cravings and the storage of carbohydrates in the form of fat.
It should be noted that if the majority of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers are found in the bran (seed envelope) and therefore more in breads made from whole grains (a bread with spelled flour or sourdough can also exist in full version), this benefit nevertheless has a disadvantage: it is the part that contains the most pesticides. It is therefore better to favor “organic” because the peripheral envelopes of the grain present more risks of contamination by mycotoxins and pesticide residues. This is the recommendation of the UFC-Que Choisir according to which opting for organic when it comes to consuming unrefined breads makes it possible to limit chemical pesticides. ” Indeed, these flours contain all or part of the grain envelope which concentrates the pesticides. “says the organization. For fans of white bread in any case, their choice should turn to the “tradition” baguette, a name which excludes the use of additives and implies that of a better quality flour that is less refined, with a Lower GI than regular chopsticks.